Harmonised Index of Consumer Prices (HICP)

Harmonised index of consumer prices - December 2021

Consumer prices
Harmonised index of consumer prices - December 2021
  • Belgium's inflation rate based on the European harmonised index of consumer prices (HICP) was running at 6.6% in December compared to 7.1% in November.
  • Core inflation (inflation without energy and unprocessed food) stood at 2.4% in December compared to 2.3% in November.
  • The inflation rate based on the consumer price index (CPI) for December stood at 5.7% compared to 5.6% in November.
  • The sub-indices with the largest upward effect on inflation were gas, electricity, domestic heating oil, motor fuels and tobacco.
  • The sub-indices with the largest downward effect on inflation this month were housing rent, meat, clothing, nursing in hospitals, telecommunication, restaurants and cafés, bread and cereals and pharmaceutical products.
  • The harmonised index of consumer prices of December for the EU Member States will be published by Eurostat on 20 January.

Inflation based on the European harmonised index of consumer prices (HICP)[1]  was running at 6.6% in December compared to 7.1% in November. The inflation rate based on the harmonised index of consumer prices at constant tax rates (HICP-CT)[2]  was running at 5.9% in December, compared to 6.4% in November. The difference in inflation between the HICP and the HICP-CT is largely due to the changes in excise duties on tobacco and the temporary VAT reduction in the ‘horeca’ sector. These price changes are not taken into account in the HICP-CT.

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Core inflation, which does not take into account price evolutions of energy products and unprocessed food, amounts to 2.4% in December, compared to 2.3% in November and 2.0% in October. Inflation without energy has gone up to 2.3% in December compared to 2.1% in November and 1.8% in October.

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The sharp increase in inflation in recent months is due to energy products. Energy has a contribution to inflation[3] of 4.5%.

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Electricity is now 44.1% more expensive than a year ago. Natural gas is 97.0% more expensive on an annual basis. The price of domestic heating oil has risen 49.5% compared to last year.

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Inflation and effect on inflation for the 12 main groups

Based on the breakdown into 12 main groups, the highest inflation rate in December was measured for "housing, water, energy" (23.5%). The lowest inflation rate is recorded for the group "communication" (0.5%).

The main group with the largest upward effect on inflation in December was ‘Housing, water, energy’ with an effect on inflation of 3.5 percentage points. The largest downward effect was measured for ‘food and non-alcoholic beverages’ with -1.2 percentage points.

Inflation[4] and effect[5] on inflation for the overall HICP and 12 main groups

Product group Weight (‰) Inflation on annual basis (%) Effect on inflation (percentage point)
HICP HICP-CT
Oct/21 Nov/21 Dec/21 Dec/21 Oct/21 Nov/21 Dec/21
0 Total expenditure 1.000 5.4 7.1 6.6 5.9      
1 Food and non-alcoholic beverages 180.8 -0.4 0.3 1.4 1.4 -1.3 -1.5 -1.2
2 Alcoholic beverages and tobacco 53.6 7.1 7.5 7.0 0.4 0.1 0.0 0.0
3 Clothing and footwear 52.3 0.3 0.4 0.7 0.7 -0.3 -0.4 -0.3
4 Housing, water and energy 172.0 19.2 26.5 23.5 23.5 2.8 4.0 3.5
5 Interior decoration and household appliances 82.3 1.3 1.3 2.2 2.2 -0.4 -0.5 -0.4
6 Health 78.8 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6 -0.4 -0.6 -0.5
7 Transport 116.0 8.9 10.5 8.8 8.7 0.5 0.5 0.3
8 Communication 33.0 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.5 -0.2 -0.2 -0.2
9 Recreation and culture 81.9 3.3 3.4 2.5 2.5 -0.2 -0.3 -0.4
10 Education 5.3 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
11 Hotels, cafés and restaurants 60.7 2.7 3.6 4.0 -0.7 -0.2 -0.2 -0.2
12 Various goods and services 83.3 1.8 1.8 2.1 2.0 -0.3 -0.5 -0.4

Inflation according to specific aggregates

The overall HICP can be broken down into five specific aggregates which together form the total expenditure.

  • Inflation for energy products decreased compared to the previous month. It was running at 46.8% in December compared to 55.7% in November and 40.6% in October. Prices decreased on average by 3.9% compared to the previous month. The average inflation rate of this aggregate for the last twelve months is 22.8%.
  • Inflation of processed food rose from 2.9% in November to 3.2% in December.
  • Inflation for unprocessed food (fruit, vegetables, meat and fish) amounts to 0.6% in December compared to -1.9% in November and -3.0% in October. Prices increased on average by 1.3% compared to November. The average inflation rate of this aggregate for the last twelve months is -2.2%.
  • The inflation rate for non-energy industrial goods was 2.1% in December, an increase compared to November and October when the inflation rate for this aggregate was 1.4%. Prices increased on average by 0.7% compared to the previous month.
  • Inflation for services (including rents) amounted to 2.3% in December. This is a decrease compared to November, when inflation was 2.5%. The average inflation rate of this aggregate for the last twelve months is 1.6%.

Core inflation (inflation without energy and unprocessed food) was running at 2.4% in December, a slight increase compared to 2.3% in November. Average core inflation over the last 12 months amounts to 1.4%. Prices of this subaggregate increased by 0.6% compared to the previous month.

Inflation according to specific aggregates

Specific aggregates Weight (‰) Inflation on annual basis (%) 12-month average (%) Monthly change
Oct/21 Nov/21 Dec/21 Dec/21 Dec/21
Total expenditure 1000.0 5.4 7.1 6.6 3.2 0.0
Fuels and energy sources 95.6 40.6 55.7 46.8 22.8 -3.9
Processed food products 187.2 2.4 2.9 3.2 1.7 0.3
Unprocessed food 47.2 -3.0 -1.9 0.6 -2.2 1.3
Non-energy industrial goods 276.9 1.4 1.4 2.1 0.8 0.7
Services 393.0 2.2 2.5 2.3 1.6 0.6
HICP without energy and unprocessed food (core inflation) 857.2 2.0 2.3 2.4 1.4 0.6

Effect of sub-indices on inflation

The largest upward effect on inflation was caused by gas (1.53 percentage points). Electricity provided an upward effect of 1.39 percentage points. Domestic heating oil provided an effect of 0.53 percentage points. Motor fuels provided a positive impact of 0.49 percentage points. Tobacco provided an upward effect of 0.15 percentage points.

Sub-indices with the largest upward effect on inflation

Sub-index Weight (‰) Effect on inflation (percentage point)
2021 Dec/21
04.5.2 Gas 17.1 1.53
04.5.1 Electricity 35.8 1.39
04.5.3 Domestic heating oil 12.1 0.53
07.2.2 Motor fuels 29.6 0.49
02.2.0 Tobacco 35.0 0.15

The largest downward effect on inflation came from housing rent with an impact of -0.38 percentage points. The impact of meat on inflation was -0.27 percentage points. Clothing had a negative impact of -0.26 percentage points. Nursing in hospitals and telecommunication both had a negative effect of -0.21 percentage points. Restaurants and cafés had a negative impact of -0.17 percentage points. Bread and cereals and pharmaceutical products have a negative impact of -0.16 and -0.13 percentage points respectively.

Sub-indices with the largest downward effect on inflation

Sub-index Weight (‰) Effect on inflation (percentage point)
2021 Dec/21
04.1.0 Housing rent 80.4 -0.38
01.1.2 Meat 47.4 -0.27
03.1.2 Clothing 40.2 -0.26
06.3.0 Nursing in hospital 38.7 -0.21
08.3.0 Telecommunication 30.6 -0.21
11.1.1 Restaurants and cafés 52.9 -0.17
01.1.1 Bread and cereals 34.6 -0.16
06.1.1 Pharmaceutical products 15.9 -0.13

Comparison with neighbouring countries

Since the final HICP of the neighbouring countries will not be published until later, comparisons can only be made based on the first HICP flash estimate for December. This inflation amounted to 6.6% in December in Belgium, down from the 7.1% registered in November. The Netherlands registered an inflation rate of 6.4% in December. This is an increase compared to 5.9% in November. Inflation in France was running at 3.4% in December, stable compared to November. In December, the inflation rate in Germany was 5.7%, down from 6.0% in November.

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Since the HICP at constant tax rates for December are not yet published by Eurostat, November is the most recent month to use as a basis for comparison. Belgium's inflation rate based on the HICP-CT stood at 6.4% in November, up from a rate of 4.8% in October. In Germany, inflation amounted to 4.1% in November, which represents an increase compared to an inflation rate of 2.8% in October. This inflation rate in France rose to 3.4% compared to 3.0% in October. In the Netherlands, inflation rose to 5.8% in November, while in October it was 3.6%.

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[1]In addition to the national consumer price index (CPI), Statbel also calculates a European harmonised consumer price index (Harmonised Index of Consumer Prices, HICP). The HICP is used to compare inflation rates in the EU Member States. To this end, the applied expenditure approach and methods have been coordinated as much as possible and laid down in European regulations. The results of the CPI and HICP are not the same. This is mainly due to a different weighting and composition of the basket of goods and services on which these indices are based.

The HICP is also used by the European Central Bank in its monetary policy. Additionally, the HICP is used to determine to what extent a Member State meets the inflation criteria set in the Treaty on European Union.

Differences between the HICP and the current CPI are:

  • The weighting of the basket of goods and services in the HICP is mainly based on the national accounts. At lower detailed levels the Household Budget Survey is used. The CPI mostly uses the Household Budget Survey at all levels.
  • The reference population of the HICP consists of private households (including tourists in Belgium) and institutional households (e.g. retirement homes and nursing homes). In the CPI, this population currently consists of private households with a reference person under a maximum age.
  • The HICP uses the concept of domestic expenditure: expenditure in Belgium by the reference population. The CPI uses the concept of national expenditure: expenditure by the reference population irrespective of the location.
  • Seasonal adjustment is not applied in the HICP, but is applied in the CPI to travels abroad and stays in holiday villages.
  • Sales periods have been neutralised in the CPI , but are included in the same month in the HICP.
  • Current prices for domestic heating oil are used in the HICP calculation. A weighted 12-month average is applied in the CPI calculation.

[2]The HICP-CT is calculated in the same way as the regular HICP, but the prices in this index are calculated based on constant tax rates. This index therefore reflects the theoretically potential effect of changes in indirect tax rates (such as VAT or excise duties) on measured inflation. However, this is a theoretical effect, since it presupposes that tax changes are immediately and entirely reflected in prices paid by consumers.

[3]The contribution to inflation of a specific product group shows how much of the change in the total expenditure is due to the price variation of this product group.

[4] Inflation on annual basis measures the price changes between the current month and the same month of the year before. A 12-month average compares the average HICP of the last 12 months with the average of the previous 12 months. A monthly change compares the price levels of the last two months.

[5]The effect on inflation shows the changes on the inflation rate by including the sub-index in the HICP. The effect not only takes the weight of the sub-index into account, but it also takes into account whether the sub-index inflation is higher or lower than that of the total expenditure (overall HICP).

Table 1
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Inflation calculated based on harmonised index of consumer prices by group of products and services, last 12 months

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Table 2
Table 3
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Inflation measured through harmonised index of consumer prices by specified aggregates, last 12 months

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Table 4

Purpose and brief description

The Harmonised Index of Consumer Prices (HICP) is an economic indicator designed to measure over time the price evolution of goods and services purchased by households. The HICP therefore allows for a comparable measurement of inflation in the euro area, the EU, the European Economic Area and for all other countries including candidate countries for the European Union. The HICP is calculated in a harmonised manner and on the basis of common concepts. The HICP is the official measure of inflation in the euro area to enable the European Central Bank to conduct its monetary policy.

Population

Final expenditure of households living on Belgian territory.

Frequency

Monthly.

Release calendar

Results available 15 days after the reference period

Definitions

Harmonised consumer price index (HICP): The Harmonised Index of Consumer Prices (HICP) was created in 1997 in order to have a comparable measurement of the inflation among the participating countries of the future euro area. Since the inception of the euro, the HICP has been one of the European Central Bank's (ECB) most important measuring instruments in the conduct of its monetary policy. The collected prices are those actually borne by the consumers, including for example taxes on products, such as value added tax, and take into account the sales periods.

Inflation: Inflation is defined as the ratio between the value of the consumer price index of a given month and the index of the same month the year before. Therefore, inflation measures the rhythm of the evolution of the overall price level.

COICOP; COICOP is a nomenclature, developed by the United Nations, that aims to classify individual consumption expenditures of households according to purpose.

Harmonised Index at constant tax rates: The Harmonised Index of Consumer Prices at constant tax rates is derived from the HICP and is calculated by keeping the level of indirect taxes (mainly excise duties and VAT) constant compared to the level observed in December of the previous year. This index allows measuring the maximum effect on the inflation of changes in taxes by assuming that they are directly and fully passed on to the final price paid by consumers.

Weighing: Weight in the basket of goods and services determined by the results of the national accounts (expenditure optics) and those of the household budget survey.

Inflation at constant tax rates: Inflation is defined as the ratio between the value of the consumer price index of a given month and the index of the same month the year before. Therefore, inflation measures the rhythm of the evolution of the overall price level.

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