Material deprivation

Material deprivation in 2018

Households
Material deprivation in 2018

Revision 14 June 2019

The EU-SILC survey, organised by Statbel, the Belgian statistical office, has delivered its first results on the evolution of poverty in Belgium in 2018.

  • In 2018, 5 % of the population was faced with a situation of severe material deprivation in Belgium;
  • Going on holidays or being able to face unforeseen expenditures is impossible for almost a quarter of Belgians;
  • One person out of ten deprives himself/herself of leisure activities or social contact for financial reasons;
  • In total, 19 % of Belgians report having difficulties to make ends meet.

These provisional results are the first indicators available on poverty in Belgium in 2018 from the SILC survey and will be supplemented in the coming months with the monetary indicators.

Five Belgians out of 100 are in a situation of severe material deprivation

Material deprivation prevents people from affording an adequate standard of living. In other words, this indicator does not analyse the financial situation of individuals, but rather what they can(not) afford with the available financial means. The EU-SILC survey measures material deprivation using nine elements relating to the deprivation of material goods and the inability to carry out certain actions that symbolise the average standard of living in our society. A person is in a situation of severe material deprivation (SMD)[1] when at least four deprivation elements (described in table 1) are applicable. In 2018, 5 % of the population was in a situation of severe material deprivation in Belgium.

Table 1: elements of the material deprivation indicator

Percentage of people living in a household that cannot financially afford: 2018
to pay bills on time (rent, water, electricity, etc.) 6,2%
to take every year one week’s holiday away from home 23,2%
to eat a meal with meat, chicken, fish or vegetarian equivalent at least every second day 5,2%
to face unexpected financial expenses 24,1%
to own a telephone 0,2%
to own a colour television 0,7%
to own a washing machine 1,1%
to own a car 5,8%
to keep the home adequately warm 5,2%
% of people deprived of at least 4 of the 9 items above who are therefore in a "situation of severe material deprivation" 4,9%

[1] Are considered to be in a situation of severe material deprivation people living in a household that cannot afford four of the following items for financial reasons:

  1. paying bills on time,
  2. taking every year one week's holiday away from home,
  3. eating a meal with meat, chicken or fish at least every second day,
  4. facing an unexpected expense of 1,100 euros
  5. having a telephone,
  6. having a colour television,
  7. having a washing machine,
  8. having a car
  9. keeping the house adequately warm.

Are not considered to be in a situation of severe material deprivation people living in a household that can financially afford at least six of these items. Nevertheless, this means that they may not be able to afford up to three of these items.

Table
Content
Percentage of people living in a household that cannot financially afford: 2018
to pay bills on time (rent, water, electricity, etc.) 6,2%
to take every year one week’s holiday away from home 23,2%
to eat a meal with meat, chicken, fish or vegetarian equivalent at least every second day 5,2%
to face unexpected financial expenses 24,1%
to own a telephone 0,2%
to own a colour television 0,7%
to own a washing machine 1,1%
to own a car 5,8%
to keep the home adequately warm 5,2%
% of people deprived of at least 4 of the 9 items above who are therefore in a "situation of severe material deprivation" 4,9%
Statbel (Directorate-General Statistics - Statistics Belgium)
Are considered to be in a situation of severe material deprivation people living in a household that cannot afford four of the following items for financial reasons: 1) paying bills on time, 2) taking every year one week's holiday away from home, 3) eating a meal with meat, chicken or fish at least every second day, 4) facing an unexpected expense of at least 1,100 euros 5) having a telephone, 6) having a colour television, 7) having a washing machine, 8) having a car and 9) keeping the house adequately warm.
Are not considered to be in a situation of severe material deprivation people living in a household that can financially afford at least six of these items. Nevertheless, this means that they may not be able to afford up to three of these items.
Table 2
Content

Coûts des médicaments

Groupe-cible: ménages avec médicaments nécessaires; Période de référence: 2017 (12 derniers mois) - SILC

  En risque de pauvreté ou exclusion sociale Pas en risque de pauvreté ou exclusion sociale SMD Non-SMD En risque de pauvreté monétaire Pas en risque de pauvreté monétaire
Une charge lourde 28% 10% 45% 12% 27% 11%
Une charge moyenne 31% 20% 34% 22% 31% 21%
Pas une charge du tout 41% 70% 21% 66% 42% 68%
Total 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%
Statbel (Direction générale Statistique - Statistics Belgium)
Métadonnées : description des données et des tableaux
SMD: Un individu est en situation de privation matérielle sévère lorsque son ménage a des conditions de vie fortement affectées par le manque de ressources; au moins quatre des neuf indicateurs de privation s’appliquent à elles: impossibilité 1: de régler le loyer ou les factures pour les services d’utilité publique, 2: de chauffer convenablement le domicile, 3: de faire face à des dépenses imprévues, 4: de consommer de la viande, du poisson ou un équivalent protéiné tous les deux jours, 5: de partir en vacances hors du domicile une semaine par an, 6: d’acheter une voiture, 7: d’acheter une machine à laver le linge, 8: d’acheter une télévision couleur ou 9: de payer une connexion téléphonique.  
Faible: aucun diplôme, enseignement primaire, enseignement secondaire inférieur  Moyen: enseignement secondaire supérieur, ESP de 4e degré, 7e année d’ESG/EST/ESA/ESP  Elevé: enseignement supérieur (école supérieure, université), doctorat

Purpose and brief description

"EU-SILC" (European Union - Statistics on Income and Living Conditions) is a European survey on income and living conditions and an important tool to map poverty and social exclusion at Belgian and European level.

In Belgium, the EU-SILC survey is organised by Statbel. Every year, about 6,000 households (or 11,000 people) are surveyed and followed up for a maximum of four consecutive years. In the SILC survey, social exclusion is regarded as the result of several factors such as income, employment, health and education level.

Population

Private households

Data collection method and sample size

CAPI (Computer Assisted Personal Interview).

Respons

60% (N= ± 6000 households).

Frequency

Annually.

Timing publication

Prelimerary results (material deprivation and module) are available in January afther the reference period, final restults are available in June after the refernce period.

Definitions

Calculation of the monetary poverty risk (AROP)

The poverty threshold is set at 60 % of the median disposable income at individual level. It is calculated as follows: 60 % of 22,784 euros per year equals to a threshold of 13,670 euros per year or 1,139 euros per month for a single person. For households, this threshold is not simply multiplied by the number of household members. Considering that household members share costs and expenditures, a factor of 0.5 is applied to a second adult in a household in the calculation of the poverty threshold, and a factor of only 0.3 is applied to children (<14 years). The poverty threshold for a household consisting of two adults and two children is therefore obtained by multiplying the threshold of single people by a factor of 2.1 [(€13,670 *2.1)/12 = €2,392 per month]. This factor of 2.1 is calculated by assigning a weight of 1 to the head of the household, of 0.5 to the second adult of the household and of 0.3 to each child.

Households with low work intensity (LWI)

These are the households where adults (aged 18 to 59, excluding students) have worked on average less than one fifth of the time during the reference year.

Material deprivation (SMD): details of the indicator

People considered as "severely materially deprived" are confronted with at least four of the nine following situations: they cannot afford to pay rent or utility bills, to keep their home adequately warm, to face unexpected expenses, to eat meat, fish or a protein equivalent every second day, to go on a one-week holiday away from home, to have a car, a washing machine, a colour TV or a telephone.

European poverty indicator: AROPE (At Risk of Poverty or Social Exclusion)

This indicator is derived from the three indicators mentioned above (AROP, LWI, SMD). If one or more of the conditions are met, i.e. if the household in which the person lives is characterised by low income and/or low work intensity and/or severe material deprivation, that person is considered at risk of poverty and/or social exclusion (multidimensional poverty).

More definitions...

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